The microphone, along with the gate, is the most important feature ofthe Tomatis Machine. The microphone completes the loop in the auditory-vocal re-education process; it is the glue for permanent change of the Tomatis Effect. In a typical microphone session, the client hears his own voice through the machine, which is modified through the gate, channels, delays, filters and balance, so as to accentuate the high frequencies. With this high frequency feedback the client is eventually able to incorporate these frequencies into his voice.
During the past 10 years many listening therapies have proliferated, and almost universally they claim that they are based on the theories of the French physician Alfred A. Tomatis.
At the Spectrum Center
in Bethesda,MD and now New York City, we have been employing the
Method for the past seventeen years. As time goes by, we are
increasingly called upon to explain the differences between the various
methods. Which is most suitable for different
clients? They say that other methods take less time, cost less, can be done at home and sound more stereophonic. Some outfits offer a canned version of Auditory training which they claim is based on Tomatis. Some can be had for the price of a good George Foreman toaster oven.
And yet all these products identify themselves as Tomatis based. This is not just a matter of abrand name (Kleenex) being used to identify any generic tissue. After a careful appraisal we must come to the inescapable conclusion that the other methods are not the same as the original, nor are they an improvement on the original Tomatis.
Now, I (Valerie Dejean) will attempt to explain why I have come to this conclusion. In order to understand and survey some of the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods and technologies available it is first necessary to become acquainted with what Tomatis's theories were and how they are executed through the technologies of listening therapies.
Tomatis, made his pioneering discovery
that "the voice can only produce the harmonics that the ear is able
to perceive". This identification of the role that the ear played in
vocal production became the first law of what later came to be called
the "Tomatis Effect".
Tomatis also discovered that if the missing
frequencies could be restored to the ear, through a device he called
Electronic Ear. With sufficient training of the ear and voice through
Electronic Ear the changes would become permanent. These discoveries
important implications for populations as diverse as singers
and children having difficulty in acquiring language. Tomatis came to believe that the ear
was much more than an organ of hearing. It is, he maintained in charge
of functions including; energizing and regulating the brains state
of alertness and attention; coordinating posture and movement;
and connecting our intentions and thoughts with our physical and
verbal transactions upon our environment. Tomatis's life mission
eventually became the understanding of how the ear was physiologically
involved in acquiring and controlling of the voice and language. To
end he invented several technologies, which could be used to
rehabilitate the ear related functions of alertness, attention,
coordination and voice. Turn Down the Bass
a good listener is able totune into the high frequency soundsthat carry the consonantsand consequently the meaning oflanguage
Tomatis also discovered that if the missing frequencies could be restored to the ear, through a device he called the Electronic Ear.
With sufficient training of the ear and voice through the Electronic Ear the changes would become permanent. These discoveries had important implications for populations as diverse as singers and children having difficulty in acquiring language.
Tomatis came to believe that the ear was much more than an organ of hearing. It is, he maintained in charge of functions including; energizing and regulating the brains state of alertness and attention; coordinating posture and movement; and connecting our intentions and thoughts with our physical and verbal transactions upon our environment. Tomatis's life mission eventually became the understanding of how the ear was physiologically involved in acquiring and controlling of the voice and language. To this end he invented several technologies, which could be used to rehabilitate the ear related functions of alertness, attention, coordination and voice.
Turn Down the Bass
Equipment Examined: Initially, Tomatis's research was to distinguish what differentiated a good listener from a poor one. He discovered that a good listener is able to tune into the high frequency sounds that carry the consonants and consequently the meaning of language, while at the same time inhibiting the low frequency sounds which interfere with this perception.
Tomatis developed a gating mechanism,
which was intended to train the ear to make fine discriminations of
sound in this desired high frequency range. This electronic gate was
first feature of the EE and is emulated in all listening
programs. The gate on the EE is activated by the intensity and
high frequency content of the music and voice. The LiFT by Paul Madaule
has the most similar gate.
On the Berard machine and derivatives the volume activates the gate and the music is played often (too) loudly for that reason. Some methods have chosen to flatten the gate so that it doesn't intrude on the high fidelity quality of the music. However this defeats the delivery of the Tomatis Effect. In other words, if you can't hear the gate, a shift from listening to a Base channel to a Treble channel, then you are not getting the Tomatis Effect. The gate is supposed to be irritating so as to get the listening mechanism to pay attention!
Another feature that works closely
with the gate and is unique to the EE is called the channels.
According to Tomatis, the two middle ear muscles perform the physical
act of focusing the ear. Changing the channels setting on the EE
practitioner to adjust the tension between the two muscles in
the listener's ear, in accordance with the profile determined by a
listening test. This helps the listener to physically direct his
attention and actually increase the perception of the incoming sounds
that are most meaningful while at the same time dampening the other
Sound travels to the inner
ear mechanisms, air conduction and bone conduction. Sound
travels via air through the outer ear to the middle ear where it is
eventually changed to bone conduction and sent to the inner ear.
bone conduction sound travels through the skull, by passing the middle
ear, directly to the inner ear.
Bone conduction always travels faster than air conduction. Tomatis developed the feature on the EE called the Delays that allows the practitioner to manipulate the time delay between air and bone conduction, so that when wearing the earphones, bone conduction is heard first, but then allows an even longer period to become acclimated to this sound (Bone) before having to analyze it (Air).
Bone conduction with delay
when wearing theearphones, bone conduction is heard first, this allows us a longerperiod to become acclimated to this sound (Bone) before having toanalyze its meaning thru Air.
Some of the Listening Therapies
include bone conduction on their more advanced models (Samonas and
but have yet to integrate them with the other features. No other
programs at this time include the delays featured on the EE.
These features (Channels and Delay) are integrated with the Gate and work in conjunction with each other.
In the Tomatis EE each one is
reguated by a separate dial, which allows the Tomatis
practitioner to create a wide range of separate settings for individual
clients depending upon their ailment specific needs. In skilled hands,
the EE can become an instrument, like a piano, versus a machine
like a radio. In this analogy, the machine, like the radio, does all
work, and does the same work for everybody who listens to a particular
station. And, of course, everyone can use it and benefit from it, but
does not require any particular skill. On the other hand, the player
on an instrument such as the piano can create unique results, but
it takes years of practice. Someone trained and experienced on the EE
become a virtuoso and achieve unique results in the manner of
a customized therapy.
A very important feature on the EE is the ability to progressively filter out sound frequencies below 9000 hertz.
Developmental Model: the theory behind
the equipment and the practice. The Tomatis Method is based on
a developmental model of how we all learned to listen- a process
that started in the womb. According to Tomatis, the fetus hears the
mother's voice and then begins the slow but steady process of learning
the mother's native language. The fetus hears only high frequencies.
This is duplicated by the Tomatis Machine when the therapist makes
a recording of the mother's voice and then plays it through the
Machine's system of gates, high pass filters and the like. Often, in
case of a learning disabled child, the hearing in utero was somehow
stifled, in which case it is very useful during the Tomatis therapy to
duplicate the in utero process by playing a recording of the mother's
voice. It is also useful in the case of an adopted child whose adoptive
mother speaks a different language than the biological mother. We
call this a form of adoption attachment disorder, and it is
treated by playing the new mother's voice through the Tomatis Machine
as to simulate what might have happened in utero. The child then tunes
into the frequencies and phonemes of his new language.
The EE is
able to re-create this early listening by progressively filtering out
the lower frequencies on both musical and speech recordings. This gives
the ear an extensive period of high frequency listening that trains it
to accommodate to and focus on those important sounds that lay
the foundation for language and communication. Only the LiFT and
TLP attempt to emulate progressive filtration and they do it to a
extent. The Berard filters are specific to certain frequencies and
address specific sound sensitivities.
Tomatis discovered that the right ear has faster neuron pathways to the left (language) hemisphere, which ideally, should have a controlling role in language and motor expression. Experiment and observation will readily show that when the right ear is not dominant, expression (and even thinking!) becomes muddled and unfocused. The EE through a mechanism called the Balance helps us to progressively strengthen the right ear in its role of audio-vocal dominance. The Berard machines are similar to the EE in this respect and LiFT attempts this though not to the same extent. The other pre-recorded programs give some emphasis to the Right ear but not progressively.
The microphone along with the gate is the most important feature of the EE. The microphone completes the loop in the auditory-vocal re-education process; it is the glue for permanent change of the Tomatis Effect. In a typical microphone session, the client hears his own voice through the EE, which is modified through the gate, channels, delays, filters and balance, so as to accentuate the high frequencies. With this high frequency feedback the client is able to incorporate these frequencies into his voice, which in turn enables the EE to gate better.This becomes the loop of better perception enabling better vocal production, which in turn enables even better perception. The active microphone session is only emphasized in one of the other listening therapy methods, the LiFT.
Training and Programming
The aim of programming is to provide re-education of the earby re-enacting the development of listening from the fetal stage (high frequencies) through birth and then through the development of language. Through programming we are able to modify the many functions of the ear. The EE is the instrument. The programmer is the virtuoso. Tomatis contributed much to our understanding of the normal and abnormal development of the hearing and listening function in the human being. Knowing how to design programs and how to adjust them is the critical human "know how" of the Tomatis Method. This requires lengthy training of the Tomatis Practitioner (21 days), the intensity of which is not equaled in any of the other currently available methods.
This survey is an attempt to understand what it means to have a machine or delivery system (CD, I-pod or internet streaming) that is based on Tomatis's theories and if in fact they are achieving the Tomatis Effect. I have hoped to stress the importance of full gating, channels, delays, full filtering, microphone work and mother's voice recording as essential to achieving and keeping this Effect. My concern is that these other methods rely so heavily on Tomatis in their advertising it is easy to confuse them and be mislead in to thinking that they are doing the Tomatis Method when in fact they are not. In examining all that goes into achieving the Tomatis Effect it would seem that these Tomatis Based Methods are not achieving it With the possible exception of the LiFT .In my opinion, the gap is wide. Of course, one could argue that a little Tomatis is better than nothing, and I would say that in the hands of a well-trained practitioner, it beats having nothing. After all, if you don't play, you can't win.